Quartz Crystal Production - Calibration
Calibration is the final plating step for the resonator. In many aspects, the process is similar to the deposition of the electrode except that far less metal is used. The purpose of calibration is to finely adjust the frequency of the resonator to a specified operating point, taking into consideration the circuit and environmental operating conditions required for the application. Generally, the frequencies of quartz resonators are calibrated to less than ±1 to 2 parts per million of their nameplate frequency. Interestingly, the whole process of plating the electrode and calibrating are reverse as to their effects on the quartz resonator with respect to the grinding and lapping operations. In grinding and lapping, the quartz blank is made progressively thinner, thereby increasing the resonate frequency. In plating and calibrating, metal is used to load the surface of the resonator, which makes the frequency lower. Consequently, the processes of quartz removal and metal deposition are used in conjunction to iteratively create the desired operating frequency.
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